Obviously, an effective teacher will plan for a whole phase or at least year to begin with. The best way to start the four step process to drawing up a lesson plan; would be to begin with a broad overview of the skills, knowledge and desired outcomes for each quarter of the academic year. One can simply plan to make a one page annual summary per subject to be taught. If you are planning for the years work in Language arts classes, for example, you could in your annual draft, plan to start the year with poetry, move onto the novel genre in the second semester, the drama genre in the third semester, and so on.
Step two of drawing up a lesson plan would be for the teacher to decide what resources will be needed for the lesson. The home school teacher might make use of a simple storybook to start. Thereafter, a series of worksheets for discussion might follow. Finally, the lesson might conclude with an assessment task, to ascertain how well the student has understood the work covered.
Once you have a broad outline for the year, you would add sub-skills which should be covered each semester. You could in the language arts divide the various punctuation marks and their rules up over four semesters. Your language sub skills such as sentence types would have to be covered with the introduction of a statement requiring a period; a question which must take a question mark and so on. You could progressively add to your planning so that by the last semester you will move to the rules for direct and indirect speech, once all the necessary punctuation marks have been covered.